Acute Liver Failure

10 cases per million persons per year most often occurs in patients who do not have preexisting liver disease clinical presentation includes hepatic dysfunction, abnormal liver biochemical values, coagulopathy (body's ability to clot blood is impaired), sometimes encephalopathy (brain dysfunction), multiorgan failure and death in half the cases Definition and Presentation severe liver injury, potentially… Read More »

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EZH2-mediated H3K27 trimetylation mediates neurodegeneration in ataxia-telangiectasia

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene ATM encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family. ATM is responsible for activating cell cycle checkpoints that arrest the cell cycle until DNA repair is complete. Individuals with A-T are thus more likely to… Read More »

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Concepts in Medical Neuroscience

Many of these notes are adapted from Dr. White's Coursera course titled "Medical Neuroscience." 1-2: Functional Microanatomy of Neurons Neurons contain all the metabolic machinery common to other somatic cells (e.g., nuclei, mitochondria) Most neurons are incredibly rich in endoplasmic riticulum for synthesis of lipid (smooth ER) and protein molecules (rough ER) and mitochondria for… Read More »

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P versus NP is itself an NP problem

What motivation do we have, besides the obvious, for continuously searching for an answer to the P versus NP problem? Many attempts have been made at proving P equals NP but also that P does not equal NP. With none being successful, monetary incentives have been instantiated. Still, no success. After trying and failing and… Read More »

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Plotting time graphs in R

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Clinical trials

Clinical trials are conducted in a series of phases. Phases Phase 1 The drug is tested with a small group of people and evaluated for appropriate dosage and potential side effects. Normally, this is a group of healthy individuals, not individuals affected by the disease or condition. Phase 2 The drug is given to a… Read More »

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Influenza virus

Identification Influenza virus may be detected by various molecular assays including real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). In the rt-PCR procedure, RNA is isolated from experimental samples. The viral RNA or DNA is amplified using PCR. During PCR, primers specific to the influenza are used so that PCR is not carried out unless the DNA… Read More »

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Common laboratory techniques

rt-PCR Real-time polymerase chain reaction (also known as quantitative polymerase chain reaction) is used to both amplify DNA (through PCR) and to quantify that amplification. The quantification is done via double stranded binding dyes. The fluorescence intensity of the dye is measured and results in quantifying the amount of DNA. This may be prone to… Read More »

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Calculating the pH of an acid using Ka and acid concentration

Calculate the pH of 500ml of 1M hydrazoic acid. Ka=2.5x10^-5? Calculating the pH isn't too tough, and I'm happy to help with any questions you may have. Just comment below. Start with the dissociation equation, HA <=> [H+][A-], meaning that Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA]. If we have 1 molar hydrazoic acid, then how much will dissociate?… Read More »

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Parkinson's disease versus Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical diagnosis is prone to errors, as many motor symptoms can also be present in other parkinsonian conditions such as Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). PSP patients are less responsive to treatment and their parkinsonian symptoms worsen more quickly. PSP is one of the toughest diseases to clinically distinguish from idiopathic PD, especially… Read More »

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